Dr. Shannon Melissa Chan
Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
The Forrest Classification was first described in 1974 by J.A. Forrest et al. in TheLancet1. This classification is a widely used classification of ulcer-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It was initially developed to unify the description of ulcer bleeding for better communication amongst endoscopists. However, the Forrest Classification is now used as a tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk for bleeding, rebleeding and mortality2–4.
|Signs of recent haemorrhage|
Non-bleeding visible vessel
Flat pigmented haematin on ulcer base
|Lesions without active bleeding|
- Forrest, JA.; Finlayson, ND.; Shearman, DJ. (Aug 1974). ‘Endoscopy in gastrointestinal bleeding’. Lancet. 2 (7877): 394–7.
- Rockall, TA, Logan, RF, Devlin, HB et al. ‘Risk assessment after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage’. Gut 1996; 38: 316–21.
- Guglielmi A, Ruzzenente, A, Sandri, M et al. ‘Risk assessment and prediction of rebleeding in bleeding gastroduodenal ulcer’. Endoscopy 2002; 34: 778–86.